Firstly, thanks for introducing me to a few good jokes.
(a) Your mother is so classless, she could be a Marxist utopia.
Two meanings of the word classless - "You mother is classless" = "Your mother behaves in an inappropriate way"; "A Marxist utopia is classless)" = "A Marxist utopia doesn't have people divided into different classes".
(b) Why did the chicken cross the Mobius strip? To get the same side
A Möbius strip is a plane (e.g. a piece of paper) with only one side. There is an old joke in English (that isn't ever really told straight, as everyone knows it) - "Why did the chicken cross the road? To get to the other side". The joke amusingly combines the form of the old joke with new content.
(c) Schrödinger's cat walks into a bar. And doesn't.
Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment in physics posulating a cat that is both dead and alive. There is a series of old jokes starting with "A man walks into a bar". The joke combines the two.
(d) What's good anagram of Banach-Tarski? Banach-Tarski Banach-Tarski
The Banach-Tarski theorem in mathematics states that one can create two spheres out of one. The joke creates two "Banach-Tarski"s out of one.
(e) What does a dyslexic, agnostic, insomniac spend most of his time doing? Staying up all night wondering if there really is a dog
An agnostic wonders if there is a God.
An insomniac stays up all night.
A dyslexic misspells words, so wonders about whether there is a Dog, rather than a God.
(f) There are two types of people in this world. Those that can extrapolate to find missing information.
(and those that can't)
The listener is supposed to extrapolate to find missing information - the punchline of the joke.
(g) Yo momma's so fat, the probability of her being in an arbitrary point in a room is 1.
"Yo momma's so fat" is the start of a series of "humourous" insults. The joke subverts the listener's expectations by providing an intellectual punchline that suggests she is everywhere in a room, rather than a traditional insult. The reference to probability is a reference to quantum mechanics, similar to joke c.
(h) How many surrealists does it take to screw in a light bulb? A fish.
Surrealists are known for making art that contains strange things. This joke takes the form "How many people of a certain type does it take to screw in a light bulb?" and provides a suitably surreal(ist) punchline.
(i) There's a band called 1023MB. They haven't had any gigs yet.
1024 MB (megabytes) = 1 GB (gigabyte). A gigabyte is often called a gig, which is also a word for a band's performance. The joke exploits this double meaning for humourous affect.
There are two parts to understanding these jokes. The first is to recognize that some of them are based on standard forms for jokes - "Your mother/yo momma is so
elaboration of insult", "Why did the
something cross the
something walks into a bar", "How many
people of a certain profession does it take to change a lightbulb?".
For instance, joke h could have equally been one of the following:
"Yo momma is so surrealist, that fish diagonal exothermic."
"Why did the chicken go to the surrealist art gallery? It wanted to be enveloped by the melancholy fish of darkness."
"A surrealist walks into a bar... of pressurized fish and delicious idealogies."
The second part to understanding the jokes is to understand the (sometimes fairly esoteric) references they make - to politics, physics and art, for instance. This would be the much harder part for the average English speaker.
P.S. The other jokes on that page are also good.