I have a question about this:
We discussed socialism as allowed by law.
Does "as allowed by law" go with "socialism" or "discussed"? In another word, what is allowed by law? Socialism or the discussion itself?
The phrase would be parsed as modifying discussed† only if it were set off with a comma (or expressed with corresponding comma-intonation in speech) or moved to an earlier position:
In these cases the sentence would involve a “legally allowed discussion”.
But as you have written the sentence, without a comma, as allowed by law is understood to be a restrictive modifier on socialism: what we discussed might be expressed as “legally allowed socialism”.
† That is how traditional grammar would put it; contemporary grammars would more likely say that the phrase 'modifies' the entire clause.
It sounds like "as allowed by law" is modifying "discussed". As allowed by law is basically saying they discussed it as much as the law allowed them to, implying that the laws only allow them to talk about socialism to a certain extent.