The error described by the OP is a common example of false friend. A number of languages use the same word to express two different usages:
I know who Alice is. She's Bob's sister.
I can swim. I learned to swim when I was five.
Thus, the short answer is that one needs to learn that in English this usage is expressed using the verb "can".
I won't attempt to describe the use of know + to-infinitive as FumbleFingers already does a fine job in his answer:
He knew to stay out of sight
I will, however, list the few usages of know + PP-headed-by-to that I have come across:
- In passive sentences like:
He was known as Bonzo to his friends.
As one of the founding teachers of the high school, Mrs. Stupin, as she was known to her students at the time, was caring, creative, thought-provoking, entertaining and enthusiastic.
Much of what he has written there was known to me and it has found its place in my reminiscences as a Theology student.
- Google's book corpus gives other usages in combination with modal verbs such as "need" and "should" that license a PP headed by "to":
Everything You Ever Need to Know to Hypnotize Yourself
The Words You Should Know to Sound Smart
PP stands for prepositional phrase, i.e. a phrase headed by a preposition.