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I'd say the indefinite article here is optional, however if you do include it, I'd include it in front of "phrase structure" too.

However, in most existing treebanks,it is dependency or phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties ofand [dependency] plays the languageadjective role.  

I had misunderstood the jargon in the sentence. I've done a bit of research on "treebanks" and "dependency structure". With this new information, I would say the indefinite article is required.

This makes your sentence:

However, in most existing treebanks, aa dependency or a phrase structure is used to annotate the sentences, depending on the syntax properties of the language.


 

This extract fromUsing the Wikipediadefinite article on Zero Article Marking gives more information on where the article is droppedthe would be wrong as you are not referencing a specific structure.

English also uses no article before a mass noun or a plural noun if the reference is indefinite, a thing that is not specifically identifiable in context.[3] For example: generic mass noun: Happiness is contagious.
generic plural noun: Cars have accelerators.
generic plural noun: They want equal rights.
indefinite mass noun: I drink coffee.
indefinite plural noun: I saw cars.

 

"Dependancy" isn't any of these however! It is countable. It is singular. It isn't a mass noun. I'm not sure why the article can be dropped here. I'm looking for more resources!

I'd say the indefinite article here is optional, however if you do include it, I'd include it in front of "phrase structure" too.

However, in most existing treebanks, dependency or phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.

However, in most existing treebanks, a dependency or a phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.


This extract from the Wikipedia article on Zero Article Marking gives more information on where the article is dropped.

English also uses no article before a mass noun or a plural noun if the reference is indefinite, a thing that is not specifically identifiable in context.[3] For example: generic mass noun: Happiness is contagious.
generic plural noun: Cars have accelerators.
generic plural noun: They want equal rights.
indefinite mass noun: I drink coffee.
indefinite plural noun: I saw cars.

"Dependancy" isn't any of these however! It is countable. It is singular. It isn't a mass noun. I'm not sure why the article can be dropped here. I'm looking for more resources!

I'd say the indefinite article here is optional, however if you do include it, I'd include it in front of "phrase structure" too.

However, in most existing treebanks, dependency or phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.  

However, in most existing treebanks, a dependency or a phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.


 

This extract from the Wikipedia article on Zero Article Marking gives more information on where the article is dropped.

English also uses no article before a mass noun or a plural noun if the reference is indefinite, a thing that is not specifically identifiable in context.[3] For example: generic mass noun: Happiness is contagious.
generic plural noun: Cars have accelerators.
generic plural noun: They want equal rights.
indefinite mass noun: I drink coffee.
indefinite plural noun: I saw cars.

"Dependancy" isn't any of these however! It is countable. It is singular. It isn't a mass noun. I'm not sure why the article can be dropped here. I'm looking for more resources!

it is dependency structure and [dependency] plays the adjective role.

I had misunderstood the jargon in the sentence. I've done a bit of research on "treebanks" and "dependency structure". With this new information, I would say the indefinite article is required.

This makes your sentence:

However, in most existing treebanks, a dependency or phrase structure is used to annotate the sentences, depending on the syntax properties of the language.

Using the definite article the would be wrong as you are not referencing a specific structure.

 

I'd say the indefinite article here is optional, however if you do include it, I'd include it in front of "phrase structure" too.

However, in most existing treebanks, dependency or phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.

However, in most existing treebanks, a dependency or a phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.


This extract from the Wikipedia article on Zero Article Marking gives more information on where the article is dropped.

English also uses no article before a mass noun or a plural noun if the reference is indefinite, a thing that is not specifically identifiable in context.[3] For example: generic mass noun: Happiness is contagious.
generic plural noun: Cars have accelerators.
generic plural noun: They want equal rights.
indefinite mass noun: I drink coffee.
indefinite plural noun: I saw cars.

"Dependancy" isn't any of these however! It is countable. It is singular. It isn't a mass noun. I'm not sure why the article can be dropped here. I'm looking for more resources!

1
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I'd say the indefinite article here is optional, however if you do include it, I'd include it in front of "phrase structure" too.

However, in most existing treebanks, dependency or phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.

However, in most existing treebanks, a dependency or a phrase structure is used, depending on the syntax properties of the language.


This extract from the Wikipedia article on Zero Article Marking gives more information on where the article is dropped.

English also uses no article before a mass noun or a plural noun if the reference is indefinite, a thing that is not specifically identifiable in context.[3] For example: generic mass noun: Happiness is contagious.
generic plural noun: Cars have accelerators.
generic plural noun: They want equal rights.
indefinite mass noun: I drink coffee.
indefinite plural noun: I saw cars.

"Dependancy" isn't any of these however! It is countable. It is singular. It isn't a mass noun. I'm not sure why the article can be dropped here. I'm looking for more resources!