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  1. Tom has never been to Madrid, but he talks as if he were there himself.

I think it is "were", but the key is "had been". Which is true?

  1. I was most appreciative of his efforts to help me during the crisis.

Is it the same as "appreciate" ?

sr for my bad english.

  • Mr Finger, you would probably get better answers if you posted your two questions separately, rather than squeezing two into one... and you might get more answers if you waited a bit longer before accepting an answer. – JavaLatte Aug 16 '16 at 15:26
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Tom has never been to Madrid, but he talks as if he were there himself.

Tom is talking as though he is currently in Madrid.

Tom has never been to Madrid, but he talks as if he had been there himself.

Tom is talking as though he went to Madrid previously, but you know he is not in Madrid right now.


-tive / -ative is a suffix that turns certain verbs (usually ones ending in -ate but it works with talk, combat, act, prevent and probably a few more others) into an adjective. (Note that there's some words ending in tive / -ative that are adjectives but don't map to a real English verb, like tentative or native.)

In the case of X is appreciative of Y the meaning is "X is doing things that show appreciation of Y." It does mean the same as "X appreciates Y," it's just a fancier way of saying it.

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Consider the time elements of these two sentences, and you'll understand why "were" is wrong there, and "had been" is the right answer.

Tom is speaking to me on his mobile phone at this very moment, saying that he is in danger of being gored by a bull. He is acting as if he were there at the running of the bulls. But I know he is not in Spain now, because I can see him sitting in an outdoor cafe right across the street from me.

Tom called me last week, and was telling me all about the running of the bulls in Spain two years ago, and how a bull had stepped on his foot. He acted as if he had been to Spain, but I happen to know that he has never been there. Tom is a pathological liar.

  • Once again, downvotes without explanations are of little value. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Aug 16 '16 at 21:14

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