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I still have another question about the sentence "All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat" from the novel "Lord of the flies".

https://yadi.sk/i/uPxx0YAzuTL6s

The boy with fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way toward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from one hand, his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead. All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. He was clambering heavily among the creepers and broken trunks when a bird, a vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with a witch-like cry; and this cry was echoed by another.

The sentence in which I still have another question is below.

All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat.

  1. Which is the subject of the sentence?
  2. Which is the predicate of the sentence?
  3. Which is the object of the sentence?
  • Note that in these circumstances we use what, not which. Which invites your hearer to choose from a list of specific elements; but you haven't given us lists of possible subjects, predicates and objects, you have asked us to identify components. – StoneyB Aug 26 '16 at 13:02
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What is probably confusing you is that smashed looks like a past-tense verb but it's not: it's a past participle.

So the subject is the long scar smashed into the jungle, with smashed into the jungle a participle clause acting as an adjectival modifying the long scar. You might paraphrase this The long scar which was smashed into the jungle.

The predicate is was a bath of heat.

There is no 'object', because BE doesn't license objects; it licenses a 'predicate complement', which may be adjectival or nominal. A bath of heat is the nominal predicate complement of the verb was.

  • Does the word "smash" mean "to hit (something) violently and very hard" in the sentence "All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat"? Was the long scar which was smashed into the jungle all around him in the sentence "All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat"? – Li Xiaodong Aug 26 '16 at 14:15
  • @LiXiaodong You understand this correctly. The "scar" marks the path of the crashed airplane, which has "smashed" down trees and shrubs. – StoneyB Aug 26 '16 at 14:21

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