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Source

Canonization is the act by which the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic, or Anglican Church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.

The bold part is hard to comprehend. Can you explain the structure, please?

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    I think "upon which declaration" means "based on the declaration made by those churches". – Cardinal Sep 3 '16 at 13:00
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    @Cardinal: upon there is a preposition with temporal meaning. google.com/… Cf. "Upon his ascendancy to the presidency|...to the throne..." – Tᴚoɯɐuo Sep 3 '16 at 13:10
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    Compare thereupon in its temporal sense. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Sep 3 '16 at 14:02
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    For those who might expect "is a saint" instead of "was a saint": the declaration does not confer sainthood upon the person; rather, it formally recognizes the person's sainthood, that is, that the person was a saint during his or her life. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Sep 3 '16 at 14:53
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What is canonization? It is an act.

Specifically, it is the act by which the Church declares something—a declaration, then.

What does the Church declare? It declares that a person who died was a saint. The Roman Catholic Church, for instance, recently declared that Mother Teresa was a saint.

What happens upon that declaration (that is, immediately following that declaration)? The person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.

The preposition phrase upon which declaration employs which instead of that in order to cast the clause it introduces as a relative clause—which is a relative adjective pointing backward to the declaration previously defined in the matrix clause and forward to the place of the preposition phrase in the following clause (marked here with '__':

... [upon which declaration] __ the person is included in the canon ... of recognized saints.

If that were employed instead of which, the entire clause would have to be represented as an independent clause by punctuation or a conjunction:

Canonization is the act by which the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic, or Anglican Church declares that a person who has died was a saint. Upon that declaration the person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.

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I'm reading the responses to your inquiry, and I see a good reason to help explain this through my own act, the act of diagramming.

Canonization is the act by which the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic, or Anglican Church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.

It's a Complex Sentence with one main clause (independent) and several subordinate (dependent) clauses.

Here's the simple main sentence: Canonization is the act.

The rest are clauses used as modifiers to modify the word "act" in the main clause. As you go through the clauses, you'll see how they just keep modifying a word in the clause that comes before it.

Canonization is the act | by which the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic, or Anglican Church declares that a person | who has died | was a saint | upon which declaration the person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.

I think it would be easier for you to understand, instead of me writing ten more paragraphs, just to break up the sentences that were combined to begin with.

Canonization is the act (a process).

The Orthodox, Oriental Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic, or Anglican Church declares (they make a declaration), by using this process.

They declare...

A person had died.

They declare...

A person was a saint.

They declare...

The result of the declaration includes the person in the canon, or list, of recognized saints.

So, the person was a saint before the person died, and now it's officially recorded by the Church and placed in the annals of history for all to learn and know about. You have to remember, the Church has been doing this for centuries, going all the way back to the Disciples of Jesus Christ.

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