Visitors can rest by the peaceful palm-shaded central courtyard.

What is the usage of 'by' in this sentence?It means ''beside'' or ''showing the way of taking a rest''?

  • Beside. . . . . . Sep 4, 2016 at 3:55
  • As a suggestion: This kind of questions can be answered using a dictionary. You only need to check all the possible definitions of a specific word. In this case you must check the preposition BY in the dictionary.
    – Cardinal
    Sep 4, 2016 at 3:58
  • You need to explain how each of your options fits into the meaning of your phrase, otherwise you are just asking us to choose the correct definition.
    – user3169
    Sep 4, 2016 at 4:19
  • I think this is on-topic and shows basic research or knowledge. Remember that learning a language is also learning new systems of logic, often very different than L1 systems. Sep 4, 2016 at 5:04
  • If a big baboon, by the light of the moon, can comb his auburn hair, why can't a learner reasonably experience the problem posed? Sep 4, 2016 at 5:07

2 Answers 2


By means beside or near in this usage.


The word "by" can be a preposition or an adverb, depending on the usage and context. Here, "by" is used as a preposition, preceding a noun, which is in this context a location. Therefore, it implies that the waiting can be done "over the", or "near the palm-shaded central courtyard. "

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