It is common to use an en-dash when we use same or opposite term such as cell–cell, Iran–Saudi Arabia, etc.

My question is: "Can we use an en-dash for Iran–Gulf?"

We all know that the Gulf is not a country.

  • This is almost certainly not correct, but could you give your usage example?
    – BadZen
    Commented Sep 3, 2020 at 16:51

1 Answer 1


First of all, a hyphen is not an en-dash. The basic rules are as follows (but check the links below for details):

  • The hyphen is used for compound words. Examples: re-read, pro-American. (But there are a number of cases where the en-dash is used instead.)
  • The en-dash is used in, for example, the following cases:
  • In a range of numbers. For example: 1904–05 in Belgian football.
  • To describe certain relationships or connections. For example: cell–cell interaction.
  • For geographic connections or relationships. For example: Iran–Saudi Arabia relations.

Without context, it is not entirely clear what "Iran–Gulf" refers to. The Persian Gulf, which is also known as the Gulf of Iran?

See also:

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