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A. Making grammatical and speech mistakes is often a necessary part in reaching language proficiency.

B. Making grammatical and speech mistakes is often a necessary part of reaching language proficiency.

C. Making grammatical and speech mistakes is often a necessary part to reach language proficiency.

Do they all mean the same and which one is grammatically correct?

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of is the only valid preposition when using part in this specific context.

You can take part in (participate in) some activity, but I think this usage only applies to people, not to inanimate things like "speech mistakes" can be the subject in this usage.

You can also have a part to play (take a role) in something: note that to is an infinitive marker, not a preposition. This usage could be applied to a thing, and so it could be fitted into your sentence like this:

Making grammatical and speech mistakes often has a part to play in reaching language proficiency.

Here is an Ngram showing the possibilities.

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