Because there is no physical "sky" in which to occupy a position, astronomers use the terms apparent place and apparent position to describe a "position in the sky." Note that the word apparent is very important in conveying the meaning of the term: it does not describe a true physical position (which cannot exist) but the position as it appears to the observer.
OED defines apparent as:
6. Appearing to the senses or mind, as distinct from (though not necessarily opposed to) what really is; seeming. Contrasted with real.
Thus, an astronomer would say:
When I'm at this location I see the sun in that apparent place/position.
The International Astronomical Center's glossary defines apparent place as:
Apparent place: the position on a celestial sphere, centered at the Earth, determined by removing from the directly observed position of a celestial body the effects that depend on the topocentric location of the observer: i.e., refraction, diurnal aberration (see aberration, diurnal) and geocentric (diurnal) parallax. Thus the position at which the object would actually be seen from the center of the Earth, displaced by planetary aberration (except the diurnal part - see aberration, planetary; aberration, diurnal) and referred to the true equator and equinox.
For a demonstration of the term "in the wild", see astronomy.stackexchange.com.