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What is the difference between opportunity and chance?
How do I use them?

I always use opportunity. As I know, opportunity is an occasion to do anything or an occasion which appropriate to do something. Chance is an occasion which gets one of two results: gain or lose something. Is this exact?

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One definition of "chance" does mean "opportunity":

Last week I got the chance to meet my favorite movie star / Last week I got the opportunity to meet my favorite movie star.

He has a chance to win a medal in the next Olympics / He has an opportunity to win a medal in the next Olympics.

Both of these examples mean more or less the same thing; however because of the broader definition of chance there is a nuance of random possibility. A chance to win a medal implies luck is a factor, while an opportunity to win a medal just means, as you say, an occasion.

You can change the meaning by using the instead of a:

I had the chance / the opportunity to see dolphins when I last went to the beach. (I saw dolphins)

I had a chance / an opportunity to see dolphins when I last went to at the beach. (I could have seen dolphins, but didn't)

Of course "chance" has other definitions where you can't swap in "opportunity":

They say poker is a game of skill not chance.

Is there any chance you could buy some eggs while you are at the supermarket?

I had a chance meeting with my boss at the baseball game.

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    To me, poker is always a game of opportunity, in apposition to bridge, which is a blood sport. – P. E. Dant Oct 8 '16 at 23:31
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Both words can mean "a situation or event where doing something will benefit you."

Opportunities are usually planned or known. Chances are usually unplanned or random.

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