Does “plenty of” imply “many kinds of” in the following sentence?
Our company made good money this year so our New Year party was the best wing-ding. There was plenty to eat and drink and most of us stayed later than we ever had before.
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No. Plenty doesn't imply different varieties/kinds. The meaning of plenty is availability in abundance.
Check out the following definitions from Google:
1.a large or sufficient amount or quantity; more than enough.
"I would have plenty of time to get home before my parents arrived"
a situation in which food and other necessities are available in sufficiently large quantities.
"such natural phenomena as famine and plenty"
used to emphasize the degree of something.
"she has plenty more ideas"
The first definition suits your example well.
It just means that the food was in abundance/more than enough for everyone gathered there.