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What's the difference among the following sentences?

It might rain tomorrow
It would rain tomorrow
It feels like rain tomorrow
It could rain tomorrow
It will rain tomorrow

Secondly, can we can use will and would interchangeably to indicate the future? For example,

I would study tomorrow
I will study tomorrow

Do both of them convey same meaning or is there any difference?

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  • Will rain is not really a modal. It is a future tense there. And feels like rain is not a modal either. You can use any of them but they all mean different things. gingersoftware.com/content/grammar-rules/verbs/modal-verbs I will study tomorrow is definitive. I would study tomorrow,if I had time. – Lambie Oct 16 '16 at 16:29
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    On the contrary, the OP's examples can be used to illustrate that will is a modal auxiliary, belonging to the same class as could or might. – snailplane Oct 16 '16 at 16:31
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    Indeed, @snailplane. And given that it is neither necessary ("I go tomorrow") nor sufficient ("Every day, when she goes out, she will walk down to the shop and will buy her regular newspaper") to convey future meaning, I think it is a mistake to call it a future, or indeed a tense. By any syntactic criterion, "will" is indistinguishable from other modals. I believe that the only reason that it is regarded as "the future tense" in English is that some other languages (and especially Latin) have a future tense. – Colin Fine Oct 16 '16 at 17:48
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There are some contexts where more than one modal is possible, with identical or very similar meaning; but in general, no they are not interchangeable.

To take your examples:

It might rain tomorrow.

and

It could rain tomorrow.

mean the same.

It would rain tomorrow.

is meaningless unless there is some particular context which makes it possible (for example, a conditional protasis such as "If I decided to spend today visiting friend and not gardening, then ... ")

It feels like rain tomorrow.

This, to me expresses a greater likelihood of rain than the first two.

It will rain tomorrow.

This expresses certainty.

Similarly with your other pair,

I would study tomorrow.

would not be said unless there is some special context, most often a condition (eg "If I didn't have to go to work")

I will study tomorrow.

is a normal expression of intention.

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  • I like this answer. Just a comment on "It feels like rain tomorrow." I don't see it so much as a matter of "greater likelihood" – more like "more of a hunch." Perhaps the weatherman would say, "It could rain tomorrow," but it's the old codger with the arthritic knee who is more likely to say "It feels like rain tomorrow." – J.R. Oct 16 '16 at 18:22
  • Fair comment, @J.R. – Colin Fine Oct 16 '16 at 20:00
  • With emphasis on the would, "it would rain tomorrow" is an expression of expectation, presumption, or even resigned acceptance, for instance if preceded by "We have a ballgame scheduled, and". I can't find this meaning in the usual references, but it must be noted somewhere. – P. E. Dant Reinstate Monica Nov 9 '16 at 0:35

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