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From a text I'm translating:

The current export freight rate that covers a range of shipments, including mineral fertilizer shipments, includes a 13.4 % surcharge.

Russian Railways officially charge the same rate as they charged back in the beginning of 2014. However, in late 2014 they increased this rate "temporarily" by 13.4% for a range of goods, to mitigate the losses caused by the fall of the ruble.

In Russian the word for this increase is "надбавка" ("an add-on", probably, when rendered literally). The Multitran dictionary offers a bevy of possible translations: надбавка.

Is surcharge a good option here? If not, what could be a better one?

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The most common term for this is surcharge. This is most often a temporary charge added to cover unexpected costs, such as a change in fuel prices. Sometimes these charges are "rolled back", but frequently not.

If it is official government action, it might be instead called a "(something) fee". For example the TSA added a "security fee" after the attacks of 2001/9/11 which, while supposedly "temporary" will probably never be rolled back.

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