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I am unable to understand this question (number 11). I think that option A is correct as it working as a participal phrase. But I am not sure which noun does it modify. The correct answer is C.

Please refer question 11

Given that the answer to Question 10 is J, the original passage looks like this:

Of the numerous ironing board inventors, Sarah Boone is credited by the US Patent and Trademark Office, turning the tide against homemade boards.

and the answer key says it should be changed to:

Of the numerous ironing board inventors, Sarah Boone is credited by the US Patent and Trademark Office with turning the tide against homemade boards.

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The phrase

credited with something

is an idiomatic expression meaning the subject was responsible for the idea or implementation of something.

Stephen Jobs is credited with popularizing the use of sleek design in smart phones.

Your example #11

Sarah Boone is credited ... with turning the tide against homemade boards

is saying Sarah Boone is responsible for stopping homemade ironing boards which may have been fire hazards.

  • "Sarah Boone is credited ... with turning" can we neglect the words that are between "credited" and "with" ? Don't you think that the unnecessary phrase should have been put in commas? – Parth Maske Oct 18 '16 at 15:54
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    No, because the omitted words are "by the USPTO". The "by" phrase in a passive construction is not parenthetical, but integral to the meaning. It could be set off with commas, but the emphasis would change: instead of talking about her being credited by the USPTO with ... , it would mean that she was credited with ... , and only remark in passing that it was the USPTO that had so credited her. – Colin Fine Oct 18 '16 at 15:58

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