What does the sentence for the native English speaker mean?
- The dog has stood there for a year.
Does it mean that it is still standing there? Or it means that it has been there for a year and now it is gone, dead or else?
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It definitely sounds like the dog is still standing there.
The dog has stood there for a year - it continues to stand there.
Although I would be more likely to say:
The dog has been standing there for a year - it continues to stand there.
If I wanted to say that the dog wasn't standing there any more, both sentences are the same but with had:
The dog had stood there for a year - it no longer stands there.
The dog had been standing there for a year - it no longer stands there.