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This is a passage from an Wikipedia article on Schizophrenia:

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by a deficit of typical emotional responses.

What does breakdown here mean? Does it mean to make incomplete, like they are unable to complete the thought process thus it breaks it?

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    I think this is General Reference. Breakdown - a failure of a relationship or system. That's to say, the primary sense here is of broken = non-functional, damaged, not broken = interrupted, incomplete. – FumbleFingers Sep 26 '13 at 15:26
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If something breaks down, it falls apart or stops working. In this case, schizophrenics have a thought process that doesn't work. The wikipedia entry that you have quoted (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia) continues "Common symptoms are delusions and disorganized thinking including auditory hallucinations, paranoia, bizarre delusions, disorganized speech..." These symptoms are examples of the breakdown mentioned.

From http://www.thefreedictionary.com/breakdown:

1.
    a. The act or process of failing to function or continue.
    b. The condition resulting from this: a breakdown in communication.
2. Electricity The abrupt failure of an insulator or insulating medium to restrict the flow of current.
3. A typically sudden collapse in physical or mental health.
4. An analysis, an outline, or a summary consisting of itemized data or essentials.
5. Disintegration or decomposition into parts or elements.
6. A noisy, energetic American country dance.

Your quote is an example of definition 3.

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