Which should I use in my sentence, "with" or "that has"?
"I bought a new car with the color black."
"I bought a new car that has the color black."
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"With" refers to something that is part of or associated with something else, but is not an intrinsic part of that item. The color of an item is normally considered a basic property of that item rather than a replaceable or changeable part. If an object is easily changeable, replaceable, or removable, such as a seat cover, tires, or a bicycle rack (in the case of a car) they could be described as coming with the object (the car in this case).
"That has" describes a property or quality that some object "has". An alternative to the phrase "that has" that has the same meaning is the word "is". So you could replace the sentence "I bought a new car that has the color black" with any of the following sentences:
"I bought a new car that is the color black"
"I bought a new car that is black"
"I bought a new black car"
The last sentence ("I bought a new black car") conveys the same meaning in fewer words than all the other sentences, and so is probably the best one to use when trying to write for clarity.
Your two example sentences are awkward, although understandable
I bought a new car with the color black.
I bought a new car in black. (native)
I bought a new car that has the color black.
I bought a new car that is black. (native)
Additionally a native would usually say
I bought a new black car.
My new car is black.
"With" and "that has" can be used to describe many different aspects of a car
I bought a new car with a sun roof.
I bought a new car with manual transmission.
I bought a new car that has bucket seats.
I bought a new car that has an extended warranty.
However, those patterns are not usually used when describing the general color of a car.
A different example
I bought a new car with blackout trim.
I bought a new car that has blackened windows.