Concerning None have/None has
"none" has been used with both singular and plural verbs since the 9th century.
Fact: Only when none is clearly intended to mean “not one” or “not any” is it followed by a singular verb in all other cases it is plural.
One special problem occurs with the word none, which has its origin in
the phrase not one. Because of that original meaning, many writers
insist that none always be singular, as not one clearly is. However, a
more accurate way to assess its meaning is to recognize none as the
negative, or opposite, of all and to treat it in the same way, with
its number determined by the number of the modifier.
Examples from Martha Kolln, Rhetorical Grammar:
Advice given by Richard Lederer and Richard Dowis is typical:
“Consider none as singular when you want to emphasize a single entity
in a group. Consider it plural when you want to emphasize more than
- None of us is going to the party.
- None of us are going to the party.
When none is followed by a mass noun (a noun that cannot be counted or
made plural) it takes a singular verb. Source.
- None of the wine was drunk. (wine = mass noun)
Note: Apparently, the SAT testing service considers none as a singular
word only. However, according to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of
English Usage, “Clearly none has been both singular and plural since
Old English and still is. The notion that it is singular only is a
myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen in the 19th
century. If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular
verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are
acceptable beyond serious criticism” (p. 664)
Concerning Any have/Any has
First of all: We use any of to refer to a part of a whole:
- Are any of you going to the meeting?
- I couldn’t answer any of these questions.
- I listen to Abba but I’ve never bought any of their music.
We use any with of before articles (a/an, the), demonstratives (this,
these), pronouns (you, us) or possessives (his, their). Any is very
often used with uncountable and plural nouns. It can have the same
kind of meaning as the indefinite article a/an has with singular
countable nouns. Source
"When used as a pronoun, any can take either a singular or plural
verb, depending on how it is construed: Any of these books is suitable
(that is, any one). But are any (that is, some) of them available?
- Have any of my suggestions helped you? - Not just one, maybe two or three suggestions have helped you.
- Has any of my suggestions helped you? - Only one out of many.
Conjugating “to do” demonstrates that “does” is used with a (third
person) singular object. Now, since “Do any here object?” sounds
right, but “Does any here object?” doesn’t suggests that “any” regards
a plurality. Also, the fact that the word “anyONE” exists at all
suggests that “any” normally refers to a plurality. Source
Concerning Prepositions at the end of a sentence
BBC states: In written English, we try to avoid putting the preposition at the end of the sentence. We can say “That’s the film I’m interested in.” “That’s the university which I studied at.” “That’s a song I’ve heard of.” But when were writing formal English, we try to take that preposition and put it into the middle of the sentence. This is where we need to use the relative pronoun which – “That’s the university I studied at.” “That’s the university at which I studied.” “That’s the film I’m interested in.” “That’s the film in which I’m interested.”
But there are cases when if you place the preposition in the middle of the sentence it will either be awkward of too formal to use (unless that is the result you wish to get).
- Who did you give your number to? - Okay
To whom did you give your number? - Very formal
What does she look like? - Okay
Like what does she look? - Awkward
Can you tell me what you are looking for? - Okay
- Can you tell me for what you are looking? Awkward
More examples can be found here.