As far as X is a comparative construction serving as an ordinary locative designating the "goal" of the motion verb go; it provides a measure of distance:
How far will you drive today?
We hope to go as far as Durham today, and then on to Edinburgh tomorrow.
In your example, go as far as is used figuratively to signify that what one does (in this case what one says) may have a greater or lesser "extension", analogous to the scale of distance, on some other sort of scale: a scale of caution or daring or violence or exaggeration, or whatever scale is in play. With that use, the figurative locations on the scale (Durham, Edinburgh in my example) may be expressed as more or less [cautious/daring/violent &c] actions:
I will not go as far as to install cameras on every corner.
She went as far as to tell him to his face that he was incompetent.
In your example, the writer rhetorically "stops short" of the extreme position of saying that history teachers are the true villains of modern society—suggesting, as stangdon and John Feltz say, that all that restrains her from "going that far" is her sense of decorum.