The word "sophomore" is principally an American English term. Most countries speaking English will have their own terms for years, for example:
Pre-school education is "nursery." Primary education is Year 1 (from age 4 or 5) to Year 6 (age 10/11). Secondary is Year 7 through 13, with the last two years often called "sixth form."
Pre-school education is "nursery." Primary eduction is Primary 1 (age 4/5) to Primary 7 (age 11/12). Secondary is S1 through S6, with students typically being able to leave at the end of S4 (when they turn 16).
K-12 (kindergarten to 12) is pre-school ("kindergarten"), followed by elementary (1st to 4th grade), middle school or junior high (5th to 8th/9th grade), followed by high school (9th/10th to 12th grade).
For high school and university ("college" in the US), the four years are named:
- Freshman for 9th grade or the first year of college,
- Sophomore for 10th grade or the second year of college,
- Junior for 11th grade or the third year of college,
- Senior for 12th grade or the fourth year of college.
As far as I know, this isn't replicated in any other English dialect.
One key difference is that, in England and Scotland, "college" is typically for education below degree level, and university is for degree-level education and research. In the US, "college" is often used instead of the term "university."