What is the correct form and why?
Do you miss some item that is on the list?
Are you missing some item that is on the list?
The context in this particular example
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They really mean two different things.
Do you miss something on the list?
You miss something which you have lost or someone who is absent: you feel sadness at no longer having the thing or the presence. For instance, you miss your old Corvette that finally blew out its engine; or you miss your sister whom you haven't seen for several months.
Are you missing anything on the list?
You are missing something which you are supposed to have and thought you had but can't find. For instance, you're missing the cable you need to hook up your new printer. ... This may also be expressed with the 'something' as subject:
Is anything on the list missing?
If what you mean to ask is whether there is something on the list your hearer doesn't have but needs, try this instead: