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The following two exercises from the TOEFL longman seems to be tricky. Which one is correct and which one is incorrect.

______ The food placing on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies

______ Dissatisfied with the service at the restaurant, the meal really was not enjoyable.

It is stated in the book that if there is no be-verb, it is possible to reduce the sentence with _ing. Also, it is possible to move the reduced sentence to the beginning of the sentence and drop the which/who/.... Please see below.

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  • I'm confused... neither of those sample sentences contain which or who. – Catija Nov 23 '16 at 6:22
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The second example makes no sense.

"Dissatisfied with the service at the restaurant, the meal really was not enjoyable."

The only subject in the sentence is 'the meal'. The only meaning can be that the meal was dissatisfied.

I suspect this problem is what you are being asked to address, nothing to do with the sort of reduction/inversion seen in:

  • 'The diners, [who were] unsatisfied with the service, did not enjoy the meal.'

versus

  • 'Unsatisfied with the service, the diners did not enjoy the meal.'
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The first sentence seems to follow the pattern you are looking for

The food which was placed on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.
The food placed on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.
Placing the food on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.

however the original sentence

The food placing on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.

is incorrect and barely understandable.

In your second sentence

Dissatisfied with the service at the restaurant, the meal really was not enjoyable.

does not seem to follow the pattern you are looking for since the adjective clause doesn't modify "meal", but it is correct and understandable.

  • regarding the second sentence, the book says it is INCORRECT and says (illogical reduction)... I don't understand that – mahmood Nov 23 '16 at 19:04
  • Also, regarding the first sentence, I say that it is similar to the rule that has been described (using ing). So, if there is another rule, please let me know – mahmood Nov 23 '16 at 19:06

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