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Me and my friend had a minor disagreement over this sentence:

"Every teacher and student (know/knows) that exams are always unfair to some."

Is "Every teacher and student" singular or plural? Is it know or knows?

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Singular. When you say "every" or "each" in this context you are singling out members of a group (in this case, your "teacher" and "student" implicit group), and saying that they all have a property.

You may have heard more singular use with the word "each" such as:

Each student and teacher knows that exams are...

Of course, you can swap it out for "all" and change the members to plurals:

All students and teachers know that exams are...

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