Source: The ABCs of IP Addressing by Gilbert Held (2002)


Although the TCP/IP protocol suite predated the OSI Reference Model, we can obtain a better appreciation for the functioning of the TCP/IP protocol suite by examining the layering concept associated with communications defined by that model. During the 1970s, approximately a dozen years after the development of several popular communications protocols to include TCP/ IP, the International Standards Organization (ISO) established a framework for standardizing communications systems. This framework was called the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model and it defines an architecture in which communications functions are divided into seven distinct layers, with specific functions becoming the responsibility of a particular layer.

I don't think I really understand what is meant by to include TCP/IP. It sounds like those several popular communications protocols were specifically developed to include TCP/IP. I don't think that makes a whole lot of sense. including TCP/IP (like, there were developed many different network protocols, including TCP/IP) would probably be more appropriate in this situation.

  • The phrasing is definitely "not quite right". I don't exactly understand the intended sense here, but my guess is the writer should have written something like ...the upgrading / extension / enhancement of several popular communications protocols to include / support TCP... Syntactically, all those words work better than development in this context, but of course there's also the semantic issue. Nov 26, 2016 at 15:02
  • In order to include, imho.
    – V.V.
    Nov 26, 2016 at 15:08
  • 2
    I would prefer including there instead of to include. Keep in mind that it is the rare tech book that is stylistically above reproach.
    – Robusto
    Nov 26, 2016 at 15:25

1 Answer 1


The meaning of

to include TCP/ IP

is exactly what you think it is, that the popular communications protocols were specifically developed to include TCP/IP. There are other alternatives for handling the transmission layer.

To know this, one must understand that a protocol consists of several layers (low-level to higher levels of abstraction). The layers are hidden from the user and consist of

application layer
transport layer (TCP)
internet layer (IP)
link layer

The "popular communication protocols" are at the "application layer" level with TCP/IP lower down.

To say

including TCP/IP

in the context of the sentence would place TCP/IP at the same level as the applications.

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