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I read a paragraph in this news website and I am not sure about the 3 -ing form of the verbs (failing, leading, catching) in the mid point of the paragraph.

In October, the company was forced to stop production of its flagship smartphone model after failing to resolve battery problems leading to overheating and the devices catching fire.

The first question is that Is there some missing words between the word after and failing, like after it is failing to resolve battery problems are leading to overheating and the devices are catching fire.

The second question is that can I change the verbs to simple past tense? after failed to resolve battery problems leaded to overheating and the devices caught fire

  • @Nat thanks for the help, I am chinese and I always find long sentence is hard to understand. – peter Nov 30 '16 at 5:47
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In October, the company was forced to stop production of its flagship smartphone model after failing to resolve battery problems leading to overheating and the devices catching fire.

I would think there are some missing words after the word 'after' and 'failing'. The missing words you quoted could be implied (self-understood) in the sentence, so, the mission words doesn't affect the intended meaning of the sentence.

In the sentence , after failing is preposition+gerund accordingly. Gerund "failing" is functioning as noun followed by preposition. As we know that "Gerund itself is tenseless on its own but its time reference is understood from the clause they are attached to. In the sentence, After failing implies after it failed, so, I would advise you to write "Having failed" if you want to change the tense. Roughly, the meaning of the sentence is "the company was forced to stop its production....After/because the company failed to resolve battery problems which led to overheating and the devices to catch fire."

If you want to change the tense of the sentence, you could write as follows:

In October, the company was forced to stop production of its flagship smartphone model having failed to resolve the battery problems which led to overheating and the devices to catch fire

As far as the three ing-form of the verbs ( failing, leading, catching) are concerned, as I said before 'failing' is a gerund form, catching is also gerund form and 'leading' is present participle.

"Leading" as a present participle is connecting sentences to form one single sentence. Here, "Leading" has reduced the relative pronoun "which" in the sentence.

  • thank you for the great explanation, I have learned a lot from your answer. I feel bad as a 20 years esl and I don't know the phrase Gerund. At first I thought failing is verb and I was thinking why there are so many verb in a sentence. Now I know what should I start, I should start from identify each phrase in the sentence. – peter Dec 1 '16 at 2:09

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