In October, the company was forced to stop production of its flagship smartphone model after failing to resolve battery problems leading to overheating and the devices catching fire.
I would think there are some missing words after the word 'after' and 'failing'. The missing words you quoted could be implied (self-understood) in the sentence, so, the mission words doesn't affect the intended meaning of the sentence.
In the sentence , after failing is preposition+gerund accordingly. Gerund "failing" is functioning as noun followed by preposition. As we know that "Gerund itself is tenseless on its own but its time reference is understood from the clause they are attached to.
In the sentence, After failing implies after it failed, so, I would advise you to write "Having failed" if you want to change the tense. Roughly, the meaning of the sentence is "the company was forced to stop its production....After/because the company failed to resolve battery problems which led to overheating and the devices to catch fire."
If you want to change the tense of the sentence, you could write as follows:
In October, the company was forced to stop production of its flagship smartphone model having failed to resolve the battery problems which led to overheating and the devices to catch fire
As far as the three ing-form of the verbs ( failing, leading, catching) are concerned, as I said before 'failing' is a gerund form, catching is also gerund form and 'leading' is present participle.
"Leading" as a present participle is connecting sentences to form one single sentence. Here, "Leading" has reduced the relative pronoun "which" in the sentence.