I always thought it was correct to say, "The boy who survived" instead of "The boy who lived". Live here does mean "survive", doesn't it?
The boy who survived.
In this sentence, it is implied that there was a life threatening "event" which the "boy" was able to live through. The reference time is the "event".
The boy who lived.
This sentence may have different meanings depending on context. On its own, it merely means "the boy was alive". The reference time is dependent on additional context. The boy may now be alive or dead. If you were to say
The boy who lived through the plane crash.
it would be equivalent to "survive".