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I want to ask my friend if he is already finished his studies today at the university, but I am afraid the meaning will be that he finished to study completely while my meaning is just about today. Also I am not sure about the the verb "finished" if it's correct in this meaning, since I can use other verbs such as "stopped" etc.

Then my option are:

a) Did you finish already to study today?

b) Have you finished to study today?

c) Did you complete already the study today?

I would like to know how native speakers used to ask what I want to ask.

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    Options I might choose: Have you finished studying today / Have you finished your lectures today? / Do you have any more work to do at university today? – Tom B Dec 1 '16 at 20:36
  • Then I understand that it's Ok to use the verb "finished" in this context. – Judicious Allure Dec 1 '16 at 20:38
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The common idiomatic expressions are:

Are you done for the day?

Have you wrapped things up for today?

"studying" is implied in all of these. If you want to include the word:

Are you done studying for today?

The expressions "for the day" and "for today" express exactly what you're asking about.

  • In my language we asked in past tens. Isn't it in English as well? ("Have you done studying for today" or "was you done studying for today") – Judicious Allure Dec 1 '16 at 20:43
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    "Done" can be a state of being. "Are you done for today" = "Have you achieved the state in which you have completed all (the studying) you wanted to do today". Finish is a state transition. "When did you finish studying" = "when did you go from the the state of actively studying to the state in which you have completed your studying'. In the past tense, "When did you finish studying today" or "Are you finished studying for the day". – John Feltz Dec 1 '16 at 20:47
  • +1 because "Are you done studying for the day?" is exactly the way I would ask this question. – J.R. Dec 2 '16 at 1:12
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Of the three options you provided:

a) Did you finish already to study today?

b) Have you finished to study today

c) Did you complete already the study today

the one that seems most workable to me is Option (b).

That said, it still has some problems that need to be fixed. When we start a sentences with:

Have you finished...

we usually continue with a gerund, not an infinitive.

Therefore:

Use: Have you finished studying today? Not: Have you finished to study for today?

Similarly:

Use: Have you finished cooking dinner? Not: Have you finished to cook dinner?

Use: Are you finished getting ready? Not: Have you finished to get ready?

Use: When did she finish taking the test? Not: When did she finish to take the test?

However, I can see where this might be tricky for the learner. After all, native speakers:

Use: When was he ready to take the test? Not: When was he ready taking the test?

And: Now he is wanting to go to college. Not: Now he is wanting going to college.

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