So I was searching on the internet to look for how to use "although" and "though." Then I saw a page that said "Though tired he was, he played well." Is this grammatically correct?
"Though tired he was, he played well."
No, it's not correct, because after though (which is called a "subordinate conjunction"), you should use subject + verb [+ adjective], not adjective + subject + verb.
Though he was tired, he played well.
There's another option, by the way:
Tired as he was, he played well.