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I haven't caught her name, or I didn't catch her name?

Whereby, in which cases should a native use the first or the second form above?

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"I haven't caught her name," implies that you haven't done so yet, but that might change in the future. Meanwhile, "I didn't catch her name" just states a condition, with no expectation or additional nuance.

Consider the following:

I have caught ten fish

I caught ten fish.

The use of the present perfect tense implies that you're not yet done fishing, and you might catch more. The use of the past tense simply states a fact, and nothing else. In the same way:

I've not caught any fish.

indicates an ongoing situation, where you might still catch a fish, while:

I didn't catch any fish

just says what happened. Of course I can follow up with a question, to ask if you're still fishing, or if you plan to catch more. But that information isn't in the statement itself.

To return to your question, a native speaker might say either "haven't caught", or "didn't catch". It depends on context. If you're not sure, then "didn't catch" is more generic and should fit with any context.

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