Nearly all of them have the same meaning - less the first one, which is affirmating that the experiment achieved the expected results - it worked. However, they are only written in different ways, two using adjectives (Successful), and the others using nouns (Success).
The second sentence exemple is incorrect, there is an 'a' missing between not and success, as it is a singular noun, 'a' must be added.
If I intended to say that the experiment achieved the expected results, then I'd say:
The experiment was sucesssful
And If I wanted to say that the experiment didn't achieve the expected results, then I'd say:
The experiment wasn't successful