Below is a paragraph I've come across on BBC. Is the first sentence dangling?

The paragraph is introduced earlier in the article as part of a section in which business leaders "share their plans or thoughts on running a business in 2017".

Include a regular slot in the working day or week for staff to work out together or alone, followed by a healthy communal lunch. This is a great way of bringing staff together socially, whilst improving their physical and mental health. This leads to a happier, more productive and collaborative workforce.

Should the first word be including?

From http://www.bbc.com/news/business-38287871

  • 5
    I think "include" is in its imperative form here. In the context of the article, since it's giving you tips, I think it makes sense. – Teacher KSHuang Jan 5 '17 at 11:50
  • It might help to imagine a 'You must' tacked onto the front of this sentence if you suspect it is the imperative form. Thus, 'You must include a regular slot....' is correct where 'You must including a regular slot...' is incorrect. – Mark Ripley Jan 5 '17 at 12:26

It is usually certain kinds of ambiguous or ungrammatical participles or modifiers--not sentences--that are characterized as dangling.

Dangling occurs as "a modifier without a head or as a participle without an implied subject, as leaving the tunnel in The daylight was blinding, leaving the tunnel." (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/dangling)

The first clause of the instant sentence may appear to have no subject, but one is clearly implied (eg, you, one, or people who run businesses), as is also a verb (eg, should, must).

Thus no dangling occurs.


English 2nd-person command or imperative form is the infinitive form of the verb without to in front it. You or you all can optionally be placed before it for clarity/emphasis. That's what include is doing here.

Changing include to including would make including a verbal, and that would make the sentence dangling, as to work out is a verbal but there is no other normal verb in the sentence.

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