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I wrote the following sentence:

I was scheduled to attend a test but, unfortunately, due to some restrictions on visa, I informed the company that I couldn't attend.

I do not know if the above sentence means that I informed the company before or after the test time?

How to write this sentence to show that I informed the company before the test time not after the test test ? Can I write I would not attend to indicate that?

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There is no information in the sentence to indicate the relative time frame of "inform" and "attend". I would assume that you informed them before the test time, because otherwise it doesn't make much sense.

If you want to make it clear that you informed them earlier, then you could say:

I informed the company that I would not be able to attend

That sets up the "future in the past" structure. Here would is the past tense of will, and it's clear that the it's before the test time. Otherwise you would say:

I apologized to them that I was not able to attend.

Here you would do something like apologize for not attending, since they already know you didn't attend.

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