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I am not a native English speaker, I am not sure whether the following sentences are correct, I am confused how the simple past and present perfect can be used in one sentence. What is the general rule for them?

The sentences are used to describe how things have been done.

A typical vehicle model was chosen as the virtual vehicle, it has 195/65 R15 tires and the mass of the vehicle is 1301kg.

The road was designed with slalom, which has been created with Pylon Alley.

Thank you for your help!

  • There's no perfect in sentence 1. There's no evident reason for the perfect in sentence 2. – StoneyB Jan 8 '17 at 14:35
  • @StoneyB - He may be referring to "was chosen as the virtual vehicle" and "The road was designed" and "Which has been created". Vivian, was that what you meant? Could you be more specific about where you are having trouble with? Is this on the sentences that I mentioned above? Could you highlight them? Because your question was written in two different tenses. – Davyd Jan 8 '17 at 14:40
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When you have present perfect Y and simple past X in the same sentence, the present perfect is describing something Y that was already true/existing/relevant at the time the simple past X event happened.

The road was designed with slalom, which has been created with Pylon Alley = We're saying the road was created with Pylon Alley.

If Y is not true now (or we don't know if it's true anymore), we use past perfect.

The road was designed with slalom, which had been created with Pylon Alley = The road might not currently have Pylon Alley in it (or if Pylon Alley is a person who created the road, he may not be alive or working on roads anymore.)

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(Was chosen) this sentence is not past, it is a passive.

A typical vehicle model was chosen as the virtual vehicle, it **has** 195/65 R15 tires and the mass of the vehicle is 1301kg.

''Has'' here is not a past it is present and it means (Contains/consists of.. Etc)

The road was designed with slalom, which has been created with Pylon Alley.

We use here has been because the road has been designed and it is done since a long time. I think this is not so hard example since we use the past perfect to make a series of actions or to arrange it. I.e After I had eaten my lunch. I went out.

And a question did you mean to divide the two sentences? Or it is just one sentence and you wrongly numbered it?

  • Thank you! You are right about "has". I mean to divide the 2 sentences. – Vivian Jan 8 '17 at 16:01

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