I've seen the phare "Victory Fund" several times. Like Hillary Victory Fund or The AAPI Victory Fund, but don't really understand that. What is the Victory? Did those funds accomplish some kind of victory?
That's just the name of a fundraising organization. Wikipedia has more to say on this: The Hillary Victory Fund.
I guess, Victory Fund just means that the money that's being collected by this organization is going to help them win election campaigns or something along those lines.
Example: The Gay & Lesbian Victory Fund
Our Mission: To change the face and voice of America's politics and achieve equality for LGBT Americans by increasing the number of openly LGBT officials at all levels of government.
The Gay & Lesbian Victory Fund works to elect LGBT leaders to public office for one simple reason. They change America's politics.
Here "victory" means "winning elections". By contributing to the fund, you support the campaigns of politicians who are proponents of this agenda.
It's not a type of fund; it's simply a fund that raises money to achieve victory of one form or another.
In the U.S., it's commonly used in the names of political campaigns seeking the victory of their endorsed candidate in an election, as the examples you have stated. But this is far from the exclusive use of the word; for example, there is Adam's Victory Fund, which raises money for childhood cancer research, or the University of Miami Football Victory Fund, which raises funds to support their football team, and presumably contribute to more victories on the field.