Consider first example:

Thus, the major documents being considered by the Preparatory Committee might be placed on the FfD web site for comment.

  1. What's the rule for using "being" between "the major documents" and "considered"? Why don't they use "the major documents that/which are considered"? I know "being" is used for Present Cont. in Passive V. or as Gerund, but there's Present Simple in Passive V. regarding this sentence, isn't it?

And the second one:

A copy of a document to be used internationally may also have to comply with special rules.

  1. What's the rule for using "to be used" between "A copy of a document" and "internationally"? Why don't they use "A copy of a document that/which is to be used internationally"?
  • What makes you think there are rules about any of this? – tchrist Jan 21 '17 at 14:24
  • If there are no rules, how to understand it? – Lone Wanderer Jan 21 '17 at 14:27
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    The rule is called Whiz-Deletion, and it deletes which is or that are from relative clauses that start off that way. In this case, the major documents which are being considered by the Preparatory Committee becomes the major documents being considered by the Preparatory Committee via Whiz-Deletion. – John Lawler Jan 21 '17 at 14:27
  • Thank you John Lawler for your answer. Does "being" in this sentence point to using Pres. Cont. in Pas. V. ? – Lone Wanderer Jan 21 '17 at 14:38
  • Without being , considered could be understood as "which were considered* or "which have been considered", so yes, pres. cont. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Jan 21 '17 at 14:59

I'll have a non-technical go at this. In both cases it's to do with timing.

In the first instance, we are dealing with an event (the consideration process) happening as we speak. This is not literally the case that as the author is writing that passage, the committee are sitting down at a table considering the documents, but more that the consideration process had started before the author commenced writing and will continue once (s)he has finished. Due to that timing, the documents are currently being considered. Using 'which are considered' would indicate that the consideration process was over.

In the second example we are dealing with a hypothetical situation. The document may or may not exist, and the use may or may not happen. What the author is saying is that if a document exists and if it is going to be used internationally, then it may have to comply with special rules. The hypothetical usage can only be in the future, as if it was in the past or present, it wouldn't be happening. Therefore, the future tense 'to be used' is used.

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