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When I had got so far in my list I threw it into the fire in despair. “If I can only find what the fellow is driving at by reconciling all these accomplishments, and discovering a calling which needs them all,” I said to myself, “I may as well give up the attempt at once.”

I've got a hard time understanding this. My best attempt to interpret this and make it easier to understand it for me goes like this:

When I go so far in my list, I thew it in the fire desperately. "If I can only find out what point was the fellow making by harmonizing those skills and what he wants to do which it needs all the skills aforementioned." I said to myself. I may stop trying to to understand all those immediately.

To compare them more conveniently:

When I had got so far in my list I threw it into the fire in despair

When I go so far in my list, I thew it in the fire desperately.

“If I can only find what the fellow is driving at by reconciling all these accomplishments, and discovering a calling which needs them all,” I said to myself

"If I can only find out what point was the fellow making by harmonizing those skills and what he wants to do which it needs all the skills aforementioned." I said to myself

“I may as well give up the attempt at once.”

I may stop trying to understand all those immediately.

Source: A Study in Scarlet, Arthur Conan Doyle

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It's an awkward sentence, and it's not surprising it gave you trouble.

It appears that the source of your error lies in parsing by reconciling...and discovering... as an adjunct modifying driving at: Holmes seeks to reconcile accomplishments and discover in them a common calling in order to drive at something.

But in fact what by reconciling ... and discovering ... modifies is find out. It is Watson who must reconcile accomplishments and discover in them a common calling in order to find out what Holmes is driving at.

You may paraphrase:

If the only way in which I can discover Holmes' occupation [what he is driving at] is by making all the accomplishments on this list fit together and by finding some occupation which requires all these accomplishments, I can't do it; I may as well give up.

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