On the official English-language website of the institute, it is called thus:
D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology
However, I find this a bit jarring. I would use of:
D.I. Mendeleyev Institute of Metrology
Is this for acceptable in this case - since I do find some instances of "institute for" online? Or is it better to consider this a minor mistake by the website's creators (who are not native speakers of English) and to change it to of in my translation?
The instances with for that I find seem to carry a sense that is different from my case. There, for seems to convey the sense of "in support of":
Institute for Diversity
Institute for Sustainability
The D.I. Mendeleyev Institute must be simply a place "where metrology is being taught and studied", and not a place "where metrology is being supported or promoted", thus I'd pick of.