I need some help with grammar. This is going to be kinda long so I apologize for that 😅. I would appreciate it if you could explain to me the differences between these sentences:
"I know how he felt when she was with him" and "I know how he had felt when she was with him".
"I've been to the cinema this weekend" and "I had been to the cinema this weekend".
"I have heard that this is false", "I had heard that this is false" and "I had heard that this is false".
"There has been a war" and "there had been a war." Assuming that the war is still ongoing, which one should be used? Also, if I were to say "there is a war" would that be the same as "there has been a war"? If not, what are the differences?
"I had taken the class" vs. "I took the class." I understand that the first example should be used if another past event occurred after taking the class but if no further events occurred and I just want to say that I took a class that I'm not doing anymore, is it still correct to say "I had taken it" or should I say "I've taken it" or "I took it"?
"They've said how we should be careful" or "they had said how we should be careful"? I'm simply talking about what someone has said, so would "they've said" be more appropriate?
Also, if I'm talking about being somewhere, is it correct to say "I've been there"? When should I say "I had been there"? Is it applicable only if a past event was followed by another past event or can it also be used to talk about an event that happened a long time ago?
If I want to say that I haven't been somewhere, would "I haven't been there" be more appropriate then "I had not been there"?
Can someone explain the difference between present perfect and simple past and which one should be used when? I often use the past perfect instead of the simple past but I don't know if that's right or not.
From what I understood, "had" is used to talk about an action in the past that happened before another past action. However, what if I'm only talking about one single past action that happened a long time ago and has no effect now? Would I still use "I/you/she/etc had"?
Again, I'm so sorry for making this so long but I get frustrated when I make mistakes so I would really appreciate it if someone answered this. Thanks for reading! 😊