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1.He didn't run because he was afraid.

2.He did run not because he was afraid.

I want to know they are the same.

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    The second sentence is not grammatical in everyday speech. "did not run" and "didn't run" are equivalent; "did run not" is not idiomatic English, so it's hard to say what it means. – verbose Feb 5 '17 at 22:46
  • @SIS, does this sentence have any context or more punctuation? Could it possibly be, "He did run, not because he was afraid, but because of something else." – Teacher KSHuang Feb 6 '17 at 7:11
  • @Teacher KSHuang yes, punctuation is omitted to make ambitious sentence. – SinK Feb 6 '17 at 9:23
  • @SIS, I understand. So you want students to be able to identify the incorrect sentence. – Teacher KSHuang Feb 6 '17 at 9:31
  • @Teacher KSHuang yes, To get rid of ambiguous sentence I put it off here. – SinK Feb 6 '17 at 10:00
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The seconds sentence is ungrammatical if the meaning is intended to be the same as the first sentence. However, there is a different meaning it could have.

The first sentence says he did not run. The second sentence says that he did run.

The alternate meaning of the second sentence has a an implied "but", and could use a comma after "run":

He did run, [but] not because he was afraid.

It would be a response to the statement, "He ran only because he was afraid not to run."

The "not" would negate being afraid rather than running.

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