One use of commas is to introduce a parenthesis – an additional piece of information which, while relevant, isn't essential to the sentence. A key feature of a parenthesis is that the sentence still makes sense if the parenthesis is removed:
An adaptive filter is basically a system that...
An adaptive filter, as the name implies, is basically a system that...
Both make sense, and your sentence is correct.
Although parentheses generally come in the middle of a sentence, it is possible for them to come at the end. Depending on how the parenthesis is introduced, it may or may not end with a full stop (see also this EL&U answer).
Be aware that the symbols used to introduce parentheses are themselves called parentheses. They are:
- Commas (
- Brackets UK or parentheses US (
- Square brackets (
- Dashes (-), en-dashes (–), and em-dashes (—) ‡
Some people, especially people involved in computing or mathematics, might also include:
- (Curly) braces (
- Angle brackets (
There are other symbols that people might call parentheses, but those symbols are generally specific to a field and are unlikely to be known by people not involved in that field. There are also different representations of the symbols, for example the Unicode left and right angle bracket characters (
"Em" and "en" are typographic measurements, originally related to the size of the letter
M. An "en" is half the size.