The resumé I sent to you is the most updated one.
If we talk about parallel structure, why is sent in the past tense and is present tense?
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The two clauses are not parallel. For them to be parallel, they would need to have the same grammatical structure. The main clause is:
The résumé is the most recent one.
The reason the tense is present is presumably that it remains the most recent résumé.
The I sent to you is a dependent adjective clause qualifying résumé. The reason sent is past is presumably because the act of sending occurred in the past.
Since the clauses function differently from each other, there is no parallel construction here, and the question of keeping tenses consistent doesn't arise.