*Am I looked taller?
(the * indicates it's ungrammatical)
This sentence is ungrammatical. Something like "Am I looked at?" is grammatical, but means an entirely different thing from what you aim to convey. It's questioning whether someone is looking at you, not how you look. In other words, the problem here is "look" just can't be used that way, and there are a million different justifications that can be made for that.
If you want to use a 'be' verb, you can say something like
Am I taller than when we last met?
Do I look taller?
This is grammatical. 'look' is a lexical verb, i.e., a normal verb. When you try to turn a statement with a lexical verb but no modals (will, would, might etc.) into a question, you insert a 'do' or one of its forms in the beginning which doesn't have a meaning (it's required, but it doesn't have a separate meaning).