If we bring water to a boil and the water currently has a lot of bubbles at 100℃, what should I call the water in this state?
- boiling water
- boiled water
And if both are used in different contexts, what is the difference of their meanings?
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If it is still bubbling, and is still being heated, it is called 'boiling water'. (See this link)
If it has boiled, but now isn't, it is called 'boiled water'.
Boiling refers to water with large, fast bubbles. It doesn't have to be 100 degrees. The temperature can be different, but boiling means it has the bubbles now.
(Water with small, slow bubbles is simmering, not boiling. However, "simmering" is not used is a science context.")
Boiled means it was boiling in the past.
Cooking: "Wait until the water is boiling, then put in the pasta."
Science: "The test tubes were placed in boiling water."
Safety: "You shouldn't drink boiling water. You will be injured."
Camping: "You should drink only filtered or boiled water while camping to avoid getting sick."
** Note : **
This refers to boiling/boiled as adjectives. As a verb, we can say, "He boiled the water and then put the pasta in it," and it means the water had large, fast bubbles when the pasta was put in it.
We call this a rolling boil.
The linked page shows examples of various boiling states.