Alice, who has worked in Brussels and London ever since leaving Edinburgh, will be starting a teaching course in the autumn.

what does the meaning that the word "ever" added to the above sentence? does the meaning change if we omit it?


I already checked "ever" meaning in the dictionary. but when I remove the word the sentence sounds the same meaning. as I know, present perfect means: since that time until now. so I think (not sure) no need for "ever" word.


1 Answer 1


ever since leaving Edinburgh means "for the entire time between the present and the departure from Edinburgh".

ever adds the idea "continuously, without interruption".

In your example, since leaving Edinburgh would mean "at some time, or for some time, between the present and the departure from Edinburgh". It could be for the entire time, or Alice might have worked for year also in Prague, say. We don't know. We would have to glean that information from the context.

Have you been back to your university since graduation?
--Yes, I have returned since graduation. I returned two years ago for a visit.

--Yes, I got a job there after graduation, and have been working there ever since. I never left the place.

The temporal phrase ever since goes hand-in-glove with the continuous have been working. With the continuous form of the verb, ever is not necessary, but it does corroborate and reinforce the meaning, "without interruption".

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