Let's say there is a person in a room who has a blue pen in his hand. Can I say something like this:
- Whom should I ask from?
- The one having a blue pen
Or I only have to answer like this
- The one who has a blue pen
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The one having a blue pen is grammatically impeccable, but impossibly literary. This sort of utterance is unlikely to appear in a formal context, and practically no Anglo-American speaker today (and very few in the past) would express that meaning with having. We'd say
The one with a blue pen.
And even that is fairly stiff: in actual speech pronominal one is rarely used except to allude to a member of a previously defined category:
But with uncategorized who rather than categorized which, most people would use the appropriate noun:
If you have no idea who will have the blue pen, use a fused relative:
Whoever has the blue pen.
*The one having a blue pen. (ungrammatical with this meaning)
The sentence above would be regarded as ungrammatical by most native speakers when used to convey the meaning the one who has a blue pen. It uses an -ing clause having a blue pen to modify the common noun one.
Why would people consider it ungrammatical? That's a good question!
We can split verb phrases into two types. Some verb phrases describe actions, for example:
Above we see examples of actions such as eating, dancing or playing tennis. Other verb phrases describe situations instead of actions:
We normally only use ing clauses to modify nouns when they describe actions. We don't use them when they describe situations or states. The following examples are fine because they describe actions:
These examples which describe situations, not actions, are wrong:
The Original Poster's question
The Original Poster wants to know if we can use clauses with having to describe nouns. The answer is: it depends! If the verb having is being used to describe a situation (especially if it describes possession), then we cannot:
However, if the verb having is being used to describe an action, then we definitely can:
This is similar to how we use -ing verbs in present participle constructions.