What's this structure and is it common to speak like that?
- I got into trouble yesterday, again.
- How like you.
In this sentence, how is being used with the meaning of "to what degree or amount". We often use this in questions, like "How strong are they?" but it can also be used in exclamations when we want to call attention to the degree of something, like "How cold it was!" In this context, it means something like "Note the degree of (whatever it is)."
So the meaning of the entire sentence is essentially, "Note how characteristic of you that is", or, more fluently, "That is very characteristic of you."