I don't know how to express myself when I want to say that I don't use my earphone when I listen to the music from my computer.
Please do not _____, use earphone/headphone instead.
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You don't listen to music "with/from/using your computer speakers". Instead you use headphones.
Note that there is some overlap in the meaning of "headphones" and "earphones" which may vary from person to person. Technically these are "headphones", and these are called "earbuds" -- but I wouldn't worry about it too much.
You use the speakers.
When I'm at home, I listen to music on my computer's speakers. When I'm at work, they've asked me to use my headphones instead so that I don't bother the people around me.
I don't know that "earphone" is a widely-used phrase. Generally people call them "earbuds" if they're in-ear headphones like these.
But people will regularly still call these "headphones".