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For examples, "I have heard him say/s 'potato.'" "Have you heard me say/s 'carrots care'?" Should I treat them as subjects or should I use their base forms?

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  • They are infinitives, so "say" is correct.
    – BillJ
    Apr 24 '17 at 19:10
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"say potato" is a complement of the cetenative verb "to hear". And "to hear" as a verb of perception licenses a bare infinitival complement. So it's fine to say,

Have you heard him say potato?

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    +1 Yes, "hear" is a catenative verb, and "say potato" is catenative complement. the intervening NP "him" is syntactic object of the matrix clause and the understood subject of the subordinate clause.
    – BillJ
    Apr 24 '17 at 19:07
  • @BillJ I learned it from you :)
    – user178049
    Apr 24 '17 at 22:31

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